Despite being subjective, at the structural and formal level, essay-film reveals many characteristics of forms described in Bill Nichols' typology of nonfiction cinema under the concept of expository mode. It is the replacement of the images of 'reality itself', with its spatiotemporal coherence, by the fragmentary images in new discursive relations with worlds that shows clear affinity between essay film and propaganda documentary. Also the figure of author and its voice bears some similarities with voice-of-God as a mode of narration specific to Nichols' expository documentary. Of course discourse of essay-film is rather polysemantic, opening itself to a dialogue with spectator. But it is also true that this essayistic sense of dialogism can be a trap for a reader. Zajac does not pass over such examples of essayistic pitfalls, but the hard core of his argumentation is focused on the strategies of weakening, deconstructing and sometimes even gradual obliterating of coherent authorial instance.