SOCIALIZATION INTO GENDER AS A FACTOR OF MARGINALIZATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF EDUCATIONAL POSSIBLITIES (Socjalizacja w plec kulturowa jako czynnik róznicowania mozliwosci edukacyjnych i marginalizacji)
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Nowadays the concept of gender is analysed more often and more widely. Studies on gender touch upon various aspects which have previously been neglected or trifled. Gender is decoded in relation to as well as through many relationships and phenomena including education. It can be suggested that school reduces gender to its biological aspect or, to be more precise, does not go beyond biological differentiation trifling the social description of differences. Femininity and masculinity in our culture are perceived and defined by a dichotomic division. During their lives individuals realise that this gender binarism is a major feature diversifying people, neglecting other more important factors (e.g., habitus). This category of division makes individuals go through the process of socialisation in a specific way dependent on their gender. During this process an individual is socialized into a given gender; moreover, gender stereotypes become reinforced. School is an institution strengthening gender stereotypes (mainly in a hidden curriculum). This is due mainly to expectations towards abilities and skills connected with gender - girls are expected to be conscientious, to have humanistic abilities and a high level of verbalization. Boys, in turn, are expected to have predispositions to the sciences. Such expectations result in the marginalization of girls/women in subjects, skills and occupations defined as masculine. This phenomenon is a result of two factors: firstly, the mechanism of the internalization of expectations and the diminishing of abilities performed by the girls themselves, and, secondly, the attitude of teachers, who influence and shape their students' educational choices via their expectations and by using gender stereotypes connected with skills and abilities.
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