The period between 1955 and 1968 was probably the time of the most significant achievements in Polish postwar philosophy. Although they were still usually under formal and mystifying name of Marxism, they were clearly influenced by three other great philosophical traditions dominating in interwar Poland: analytical, inspired by the Christian thought and phenomenology. Their representatives were the ones who created the peculiar intellectual climate that made the position of Marxism and social sciences in Poland different from the one in the other countries depending on the USSR. Trying to reveal the peculiarity of Polish postwar philosophy, the author finds the biographical method very helpful. Philosophical choices among: Marxism, phenomenology, neotomism, philosophical pluralism and further evolution of views and ideas of Polish philosophers who belonged to the generation that started its intellectual journey after World War II, cannot be understood without biographical context.