Rome, as an open city, was capable to integrate various elements within one political organism. Hence the relations between Roman citizen and Roman territory were different than the Greek ones. The citizens were forming their civitas not as an urban form, but as a kind of political idea. The ability to integrate different elements as well as the homogeneity of both: religious and public values, were expressed by Jupiter's nature which was strictly connected to Indo-European mythology and its typology seen from the perspective of the ritual tasks of the priest called flamen dialis. But first of all, Jupiter was a religious embodiment of the idea of res publica (Iovis Optimus Maximus) and the federal god of Latin League (Latiaris). The article presents the theological conceptions connected to Jupiter Capitolinus and Jupiter Latiaris.