The article aimed to show how the young Republic of Turkey attempted to develop its 'national Turkish music' during the radical revolutionary period. It was based mainly on studies concerning Turkish music. The radical revolutionary period that began after the establishment of the Republic in 1923 imposed significant changes on Turkish society and culture. Westernization of Turkey was particularly significant to the founders of the new regime. Music was a central target in this Westernization process. The founders of the Republic believed that there was a need for 'national' music based on Western techniques of harmony, in order to achieve a new 'national' identity for the Republic of Turkey. This effort was quite unique, involving well-known music experts (e.g. Joseph Marx) during its course. The 'music reform' failed to reach the level of success it aimed to achieve. The Republic intended to build a new music for the masses but the result is a new musical style for the country, which was going to be welcomed only by the elites of the Republic.