The first part of the article examines the problem of Basque nationalism, focusing on the roots and complex nature of this national movement in northern Spain. The political situation in the Basque country is the subject of a very emotional debate in some Polish newspapers. Yet the true nature of the question of Basque nationalism, which is often simplified by journalists, remains unclear for Polish readers. From a historical approach, the authoress aims to deconstruct such a truly false picture of the Basque national movement in Spain. From various points of view, she shows that the movement's goals are by no means limited to an organization seeking to propagate or openly use violent methods of fighting the Spanish government. The article shows that Basque nationalism may be viewed as a type of social conflict embracing particular ethnic elements which are of prime significance.