K distribuci a funkci ingresivního významu u předponových sloves
ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND FUNCTION OF INGRESSIVE MEANING IN PREFIXED VERBS
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The aim of this paper was to collect an inventory of Czech prefixed verbs with the meaning 'to start doing something' (ingressivity). This meaning is obtained by joining the prefixes na-, pro-, roz-, vy-, vz- and za- to lexical bases which can be characterized as action verbs. The basic distinctive feature of ingressive meaning is the contrast with the foregoing action (or non-action). This can be perceived most clearly with verbs expressing sounds (rozstekat se 'to start barking') or movements (vybehnout (na drahu) 'to start running on the race course'). In compliance with the prefixes, we divided 595 selected derivatives into groups, which we further differentiated into subclasses using semantic and morphological attributes of the verbs. Based on the role of the agent and the character of the action, we distinguished 3 types of ingressive meaning: 1) as in rozplakat se 'to start crying', 2) as in nakousnout (toust) 'to start eating a toast' and 3) as in rozplakat (nekoho) 'to make someone start crying'. The ingressive meaning occurs with verbs used literally as well as metaphorically. With some polysemic verbs, a certain type of complement is needed (e.g. an adverb of time) to achieve the analyzed meaning.
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