This contribution focuses on the German physician Gustav Rösler, a pioneer of the thennew science of eugenics, and advocate of the movement for life reform (Lebensreform) in the Bohemian Lands in early 20th century. At this time, interest in social phenomena which were linked to industrialisation and had a negative impact on human health contributed to the creation of organisations and institutions designed to counter these phenomena. At a time when the German national movement was rapidly growing, Gustav Rösler designed a ‘programme of improvement of German fitness’. Its aim was to cultivate mental and physical fitness of the German population, especially the youth. Its institutional foundation was the Liberec-based Neudeutscher Kulturbund in Österreich and the publishing house Neudeutscher Kulturverlag.