The paper aims at presenting human capital in the economy, drawing attention to the multitude of determinants of that factor and the investments in human capital. To achieve the intended objectives the statistics and studies by international organizations, data from the statistical yearbooks of the CSO, scientific publications and websites were used. Significant differences between countries in the funds allocated to financing the activities involved in human capital improvement are observed. In most cases investments in education and in research and development is mentioned. Poland spends USD 5.500 per year per 1 student, which ranks it in the last position among 24 OECD countries covered by the study. Availability of studies in Poland is the highest, although usefulness of studies for finding a job is the lowest. The expenditures on R&D activities represent ca. 0.56% of the GDP and they are among the lowest in the EU countries.