This study analyses marital fertility in the 19th century in the parish of Rozmberk nad Vltavou, which is located in Southern Bohemia. In the 19th century this region was stagnating economically. Its lack of development was reflected in demographic changes. The natality and fertility rates remained almost unchanged even in the 19th century. Changes that did occur were caused by the rising age of marriage more than by an effort to regulate the number of children born. Throughout the period under observation families tended to have around 4-5 children on average. Women's fertility was especially high at the start of the marriage, and then it gradually declined after the age of 30. Fertility remained at the same level throughout the century and was only slightly lower than in the 18th century. Infant and child mortality were relatively high: by the age of five just over one-quarter of all children born had died (26.2 %) and the rate of stillbirths hovered around 2 %. The minor changes that did occur in the 19th century among the Rozmberk population were not pronounced enough for us to be able to speak about this society's transition to new demographic structures.