(Slovak title: Priestorova autokorelacia - metoda vymedzovania a klasifikacie regionov v kontexte socialno-ekonomickej regionalizacie Slovenskej republiky). Polarization and differentiation of the society is the result of close links between social and economic dimension, which is reflected not only in economic but also in social differences between regions, along with a wide range of other different factors. The article presents the results of the analysis aimed to identify the problem-ridden and developed regions in the Slovak Republic at the municipal level based on the characteristics of the economically active population and unemployment rates in 2001. The main method applied for classifying regions was the spatial autocorrelation which plays an important role in spatial statistics and spatial econometrics. Identifying and implementing the right variables in space and time contributed to detection of micro-regional differentiation and its consequences within the structural constraints of the analysed area.