CHAPTERS FROM THE HISTORY OF ARTISTIC ELOCUTION 2. ELOCUTION IN THE GREAT MORAVIAN EMPIRE
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The authoress (the first part of study was published in the Slovak Theatre issue 54/2006, No 3) deals with the research of artistic elocution in the period of the Great Moravian Empire. Christianization was externally connected to new life principles, liturgy and mass ceremony. They were represented by the new tasks, but also by a new verbal approach of the priest which was far more modest and simple when compared to the magnificent paganish ceremonies. An open area of natural scenery, theatralisation of the ceremonies and magnificence of paganish deity was replaced by simplicity of sacral buildings and mystery of the Christian ceremony in a small closed space of a church. Declamatory reciting or singing of vows and prayers which was in some extend relating to the paganish ceremonies, was connected with the certain prosodic characteristics of a speech. The form of prayers was determined by the rhythm of speech with its syllable structure and by the rhythm of breathing. A collective reciting or declamation of prayers strengthened the group unity and helped create a collective spiritual feeling. Into the lively paganish - Christian cultural environment is coming the Byzantine Christian mission lead by Constantinos and Methodius invited by the earl Rastislav in 863. In 'Short Life of Constantinos' - Cyril is stating that Constantinos and Methodius had come to the Great Moravian Empire 'to educate children in writing, teach about ecclesiastic duties and while wiping out various forms of heresy found within the local people, use the slasher of their eloquence'. Besides writing and language, they had brought into our territory also a higher form of the social and cultural contact, speech and behaviour. As the opposite to negligence and barbarian manners of Slavonians and also Franks, the Byzantine rather mature culture was strictly formalized and canonized. In the 9th century famous schools of poetic and musical culture originated also in monasteries of the western Europe (Sankt Gallen, Méty, Limoges), which were developing liturgical literature by adding the poetic and musical tropics accepting also some features of the eastern Christian culture. The Constatinos' school, or schools could not compete with its western counterparts, not even with eastern schools, mainly due to a short historic time of their existence, but even though they succeeded to create a solid basis for the ecclesiastic and spiritual culture in the middle of Europe and in Balkan.
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