The article attempts to present the categories of 'saintliness', expressed within the literary oeuvre of Nikolai Leskov, with regard to such works as: 'The Enchanted Wanderer' (Ocharovannyi strannik, 1875), 'The Immortal Golovan' (Nesmertelnyi Golovan, 1880), 'Samodum' (Odnodum, 1879), 'Pamfalon the Tumbler' (Skoromok Pamfalon, 1887) and 'Cathedral Folk' (Soborane, 1872). The authoress of the article tries to draw our attention to the fact the writer was mainly concerned with the process of his main characters' strive for saintliness. Within the scope of man-God relation, Leskov concentrates on the earthly aspect of human life. Leskov's 'positive characters' were supposed to embody the moral model of behaviour for Russian society of the second half of the XIX century. By reference to the Christian tradition, as a kind of 'moral code', in his literary presentation of 'the pious', the writer refers to the figures, instructions and teachings of the Church Fathers closest to him; among them, undoubtedly, Anthony the Great (III-IV C.), Nil Sorski ( XV C.), Protopop Avvakum (XVII C.) and Tikhon Zadonskii (XVIII C.).