In the second half of the 19th century, anarchism presents itself in certain characteristic signs and manifestations. Although the representatives of anarchism themselves willingly emphasize the originality of their ideas and their resistance to doctrine, their ideas come closer in the radical critique of economic and social relations, in the criticism of the Church and religion, as well as the sharp criticism of the other political parties, but at the same time they differ in their individual accents of their negation of the existing circumstances. The anarchistic level of their critique leads them from individual negation all the way to demands for a radical transformation of society, to different ideas about the nature of revolutionary behaviour, and the character of revolutionary change. From there, various forms and concepts of the future “post-revolution” society, visions of the anticipated freedom, on the character of the new social relations developed. For the characterization of the anarchism of the given period, the personalities of its French representative Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, the Russian revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin, the former German MP Johann Most, the original scientist Peter Kropotkin and the university educated German socialist Gustav Landauer and the entirely differently thinking Young Hegelian Max Stirner were chosen.