The Beginning of the Polish-Turkish War and Polish-Russian Relations during the First Half of 1683
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Polish-Russian negotiations from the first half of 1683 constitute an important stage in the history of relations between the two countries during the second half of the seventeenth century. Both Russia and the Commonwealth aimed at a compromise at the time of a successive phase in the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in Eastern and Central Europe. The anti-Ottoman rapprochement of those countries was rendered complicated by their rivalry for Ukraine. In the course of the Crimean-Russian negotiations of 1681, Moscow unsuccessfully demanded terrains on the right bank of the Dnieper and the Zaporozhe region. In 1682 the Commonwealth, profiting from the political crisis in Russia, embarked upon a failed attempt at depriving Russia of Ukraine and the Smolensk region. All these factors adversely affected Polish-Russian relations on the eve of the Ottoman expedition against Vienna. The Russian mission arrived in Warsaw at a time when the parliamentary session of 1683 had almost ended. Up to then, a defensive-offensive alliance had been already signed by Austria and the Commonwealth. The prime objective of both allies was to draw Russia into the league. The latter, however, did not hasten joining the alliance, since it was still facing the threat of unrest on the part of the Cossacks and the 'streltsy'. Furthermore, the government of Tsarevna Sophia and Chancellor Golitsyn wished to benefit from the international situation in order to improve the conditions of the Bakhchisarai alliance. Fearing that the Commonwealth would conduct a revision of the treaty of Andruszów (1667), the Russian diplomats insisted that King Jan Sobieski swear an oath, pledging the observance of all the earlier signed Polish-Russian treaties. The Commonwealth opted for an unwavering stand vis-a-vis Russia: Jan III refused the oath, and already in 1683 the Polish side made considerable efforts to engage Russia into an anti-Ottoman league. A Polish envoy was dispatched to Moscow. Russian diplomacy considered a grant to the state of Muscovy of terrains annexed upon the basis of the treaty of Andruszów to be an indispensable condition for joining the coalition. Despite the fact that both sides did not reach an agreement about the alliance, the negotiations conducted during the first half of 1683 delineated an eternal peace and alliance, signed in 1686 (the so-called Grzymultowski treaty).
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