The author presents a brief historical account of the use of X-rays and the production of X-ray equipment in Poland, since its discovery until the present day. Polish achievements in this field mainly relate to the use of X-rays in medicine and in research on diffraction, and to a lesser degree non-destructive research in industry or the use of X-ray fluorescence to analyse the chemical composition of substances. The paper mentions the names of key Polish scientists involved in such research. The paper also presents Polish achievements in the area of manufacturing X-ray equipment in the inter-war period (1918-1939) and after World War II. Mentioned in the paper, as well, are attempts to manufacture in Poland high-energy apparatus such as betatrons, line accelerators, and X-ray tubes. The current revival in the use of X-rays in many fields of everyday life is based, unfortunately, on ready-made applications supplied together with complete equipment from outside Poland.