This article focuses on the situation of parents of children aged 0-7 in the Czech labour market according to findings from the Labour Force Survey in 2007. The author discusses the model of changes to the economic position of parents typical for the Czech Republic and shows that mainly mothers are affected by the interruption to labour market participation. They found a strong homogeneity of preferences for home care until a child reaches the age of 3, a fact that could also be influenced by structural/institutional conditions. Working mothers of smaller children are significantly at risk of unemployment and at risk of being required to work on a fixed-term contract, and they have a smaller chance of reaching management positions. Fathers are not affected as much by parenthood, but they are more at risk of having to working long hours and evenings. Some of the results (especially on mothers' unemployment) require further research and political attention.