Average total annual costs of energy provision for house heating in a standard family house with 180 m2 of floor surface (including capital, operation and maintenance costs) have been compared for various heating systems under the Polish economic conditions. The compared heating technologies comprise water-to-water and ground-loop heat pumps with both vertical and horizontal loops, a liquid gas combustion furnace, an earth gas combustion furnace, a coal combustion furnace, a straw combustion furnace, a wood combustion furnace, a wooden pellets fuelled boiler and an electric stove. A sensitivity analysis with regard to the interest rate and the value of owner's work did not change the general conclusion that in most cases heat pumps were the cheapest, while oil and coal burning furnaces or an electric boiler the most expensive solutions. The cost of house owner's own labour was decisive for the appraisal of labour intensive systems. This cost, frequently disregarded in the economic appraisal, makes a sigfnificant part of total costs as a part of transaction costs, so important in the perspective of institutional economy.
Henryk Manteuffel Szoege, Szkola Glówna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, ul. Nowoursunowska 166, 02-787 Warszawa, Poland
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