The paper deals with selected methodological problems of historical knowledge. In the introduction, the authors consider existing disputes in the methodology of the historical sciences: naturalism and anti-naturalism, nomothetism and ideographism, synchronism and diachronism. The authors seek a key to solution of these contradictions in overcoming the anti-historical conception of human nature or the essence of man, the structure of society and social science laws. They concentrate their attention on the analysis of the historical retrospective and historical genesis. They show that the unification of these two approaches enables a theoretical basis for historiography and establishment of the problem of integration of the nomological explanation and humanist interpretation. In another part of the work, they consider the nature of historical narrative. They distinguish the shaping of a story in art and in historiography, and they analyse the problem of the truth and meaning of historical narrative and its criteria.