The main attempt of this article was to present how the Polish integration wit EU may affect Polish agriculture during the first few years after accession. The subjects of the analysis were measurable factors, e.g., the results of negotiation, and the factors which were not negotiated but will appear as a result of the EU enlargment. The level of quotas and para-quotas, changes in the input and output prices, reduction of domestic support, chosen instruments of the first and second pillars of the CAP and structural funds were assessed. Agriculture's position was analysed from the perspective of agriculture as a sector as well as from the individual enterprises' point of view. The analyses allow stating that integrated operation of the assessed factors should cause an income increase of the sector and majority of the farms. A high increase of relative income is estimated. However the increase in absolute numbers will not be large enough to allow radically change the common economic and social situation of the Polish rural population. Nevertheless, good usage of negotiated support instruments depending on institutional preparation may create favourable conditions for a fundamental improvement of socio-economical situation of the Polish agriculture and rural areas.