As a result of mass immigration of Greeks from Asia Minor, which took place in consequence of the defeat in the war with Turkey in 1922-1924, Greek agriculture and economy underwent unprecedented changes. A great number and diversity of the immigrants resulted in breaking of almost all previous social and economic connections in the country. Owing to the refugees, Greek internal market increased significantly, services and production (particularly agro-industrial) sectors became more dynamic. A new modern fashion of agricultural activity was also popularized. Moreover, the northern parts of the country, Aegean Macedonia and West Thrace, underwent unprecedented modernization. Significant Greek population growth, at the cost of other ethnoreligious groups, which was the result of settlement operation conducted by the state, could also be observed there. Immigrant communities demonstrated good dynamics in economic activity, which resulted in breaking of the traditional socioeconomic relations in Greece; the pressure on their side was conducive to cultural and political modernization. Diverse and often contradictory experiences of 'locals' and immigrants fostered the pluralization of social life. All these transformations, however, have not translated either into a sudden economic growth over the next decade, or the stabilization of Greek political system.