CONTRASTIVE STUDIES AND SEMANTIC INTERLANGUAGE
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The analysis of the language confrontation issues presented in the paper shows the imperfection of the results of research where two or more languages are compared based on a formal inventory, i.e. the so-called morpho-syntactical features and values. The use of interlanguage as a language of consistent and simple notions helps overcome the formal barrier, and ensures that the individual confronted languages are always referred to the same meaning plane, known traditionally as tertium comparationis. The results of research on natural languages obtained based on a confrontation with a semantic interlanguage are comparable and have an equal status. The approach presented in the Part 2 motivates syntactical phenomena by semantic features of predicative units, as well as by the specific structure of the argument places opened by those units. The objects contained within those places are carriers of states in the sense of net theory, but describing that sphere solely by its relations to states and events does not exhaust the whole problem area. The paper presents an outline of an apparatus of analysis starting with the semantic plane, in which the elements of the interlanguage are classes of semantic predicates and the set of 'predicate- argument positions' defined by positions at possibly simple predicates. The paper also shows problems connected with the condensation phenomena. As an effect of such phenomena, some elements of the semantic structure are only realized superficially, and functions of argument phrases might be sometimes neutralized.
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