(Title in Polish - 'Papiez Pius XII i jego koncepcja 'neutralnosci absolutnej' Stolicy Apostolskiej w stosunkach miedzynarodowych (1939-1945). Przypadek Polski'). The article discusses the policy of Pope Pius XII on the international arena during World War II. Historians have extensively studied and discussed this policy. These problems always arouse many controversies, which are still intense although many years passed after the war's end and despite the Pope's death fifty years ago. The author of the article expresses the view that the main motive of the Vatican's policy during War World II times was neither the anti-Communism of Pius XII or his pro-German views, but most of all - the doctrine of 'absolute neutrality' in international relations. It was the key priority for the Vatican. The attitude towards Poland remains a clear example of limitations of this doctrine imposed by practice.