The collection of the composer and Kapellmeister Gustav Dueben in Uppsala, consisting of about 2,300 handwritten compositions and 25 prints, represents the repertoire performed at the Royal Court in Stockholm between 1640 and 1718. It is the only relatively comprehensive collection of music manuscripts comparable with the collection of the Olomouc Bishop Carl Liechtenstein-Castelcorno in Kromeriz, created 1664-1695, which, according to its 1695 inventory, consisted of 1,397 handwritten manuscripts. In both collections, works by the same 19 composers (Italian and German, who worked mainly, or exclusively, in Italy or the German speaking regions) are found; from Bertali, Schmelzer, Bonifazio and Graziani there are identical compositions in both collections. Comparing the watermarks showed that in each collection the compositions are written on different paper, which, together with the fact that only a small portion of their repertoire is identical, supports the notion that there was no direct link between the Kromeriz and Uppsala collections. From the point of religion and geography, each of them was oriented towards different European culture centres, and the only place common to both was Vienna.