This article relates to the international project on the linguistic-cultural picture of the world of the Slavs and their neighbors. The author proposes that the project address questions relating to the values underlying the linguistic picture of the world in the national languages under study, their hierarchy, the system they constitute, and above all the question of understanding of these values. A preliminary list of values in the Polish linguistic-cultural sphere contains about 70 concepts, including: (1) spatial concepts: HOUSE, EUROPE, EAST, WEST; (2) concepts relating to humans, their attitudes and personal virtues: PERSON, FRIENDSHIP, DIGNITY, COURAGE, HEROISM; (3) concepts relating to social attitudes and virtues: FAMILY, NATION, JUSTICE, SOLIDARITY, RESPONSIBILITY, TOLERANCE, HOSPITALITY; (4) political concepts: DEMOCRACY, REGIONALISM, SELF-GOVERNMENT; (5) key ideological concepts: FREEDOM, EQUALITY, INDEPENDENCE, HOMELAND; (6) religious concepts: GOD/FAITH, CHURCH; (7) general concepts: TRUTH, FALSEHOOD (LIE), SCHOLARSHIP, WORK. To a great extent, these values are common to several languages. The question remains, however, what hierarchy there is in various languages and how the values are understood. Comparative research on the linguistic picture of the world should also deal with oppositions of the type ‘one of us/foreign', ‘us/them', as well as national, religious and ideological auto- and hetero-stereotypes.