The paper is devoted to the history of the notion of nihilism which was introduced to German philosophy in the 18th century by Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi (1743-1819) as a critique of transcendental philosophy of Kant and Fichte. The Kantian subject and the Fichtean 'I' are both pure intellectual constructs that turn everything outside of themselves into nothing, which is why their theories are nihilism. In his critique of Kant and Fichte, Jacobi rejects the idea of philosophy as a science that deduces all its content from one subjective principle. Philosophy should be based on something what cannot be reduced to thought.
Piotr Dehnel, Dolnoslaska Szkola Wyzsza we Wroclawiu, Katedra Filozofii i Logiki, ul. Wagonowa 9, 53-809 Wroclaw, Poland
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