Slavic reciprocity was a set of ideas that sought, enforced and defended the political, religious, cultural and civilization affinity of the Slavic nations. In the early stage of enforcing Czech national identity, this reciprocity focused on language and literary affinity. Then, it gradually moved to political aims. It moved from universal Slavic reciprocity and unspecific, Kollár-like Pan-Slavism to Polonophilia and Russophilia. Austro-Slavism played a specific role, as well. The idea of general Slavism was increasingly more often replaced with specific manifestations of bilateral collaboration. This trend was also reflected in New Slavism, which replaced the Slavism of the 19th century in the first decade of the 20th century. A direct link can be seen between New Slavism and the Slavic policy of interwar Czechoslovakia. With respect to the change in the contents of Slavism it is necessary to create distinctions between the terms 'Slavic reciprocity', 'Pan-Slavism' and 'Russophilia'.