Speaker's reference is an intentional act directed, via an expression, at an object - an intentional object. The author of the paper tries to find an answer to the following question: What does a speaker refer to when he does not know what a description or a proper name used refers to? He argues that, if the speaker uses such a description, his reference is not directed at the referent of the description but at its meaning. If the speaker uses a proper name whose meaning is not known to him, he can refer neither to the referent nor to the meaning of that name.
P. Cmorej, Filozofický ústav SAV, Klemensova 19, 813 64 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
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