OBJECT AND CONTEXT IN PERCEPTION AND MEMORY. POLISH-CHINESE RESEARCH ON ANALYTIC AND HOLISTIC COGNITIVE STYLES.
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In the described research the authoress examined hypothesis about the significance of Object and Context and about memory of them among Polish and Chinese representatives. The project was based on the comparative studies among Americans and East-Asians dealing with two cognitive styles: holistic and analytic. The research on comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans publishes by Nisbett and Masuda in 2001 was a prototype study for the own one. The results showed that Poles preferred the Objects, which is rated higher. For Chinese the Background was always more important than the Object, irrespectively to the stimulus origin. Chinese cognitive style was more constant. The results of recognition test showed that Chinese made more errors and Poles had more correct indications. The research gave some evidences for the differentiation on two cognitive styles specific for Asian and European. The holistic style of thinking characteristic for Chinese, in contrary to analytic style typical for Poles, does not bring Asians only advantages. Although they see more details which let them see far more of the world than Westerners, they are also in cognitively more demanding situation and they have to remember more elements. Depending on the situation both of cognitive styles: holistic and analytic can be useful and appropriate.
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