Poland's accession to the European Union creates opportunities for acceleration of the modernisation process of Polish agriculture. According to the world experiences, agricultural development is still less related to the endogenous conditions of the sector, but depends more and more strongly on agricultural and first of all on macroeconomic policies. Tendencies for growth occurring in the entire economy are the most important factor of competitiveness of the food sector. The satisfactory results achieved in the macro-scale influence farming and its environment. Transfers of the EU resources will be extremely important in order to overcome the development barriers. However, the outlook for acceleration of the economic growth in Poland is threatened, among other things, by difficult situation on the labour market, deep inequilibrium of the public finances and the low level of domestic savings. They may prove not to be sufficient for financing the necessary investments in the period of faster economic growth. The membership of Poland in the European Union also means fundamental changes in both the scale and the system of financing agriculture. Nearly a half of the total EU budget is spent for carrying out the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Taking over by Poland of the CAP rules under the conditions agreed in Copenhagen will bring about an increase in both the scale and the scope of subsidies available for the food producers.