AN ATTEMPT AT THE ASSESSMENT OF THE PROCESS OF PRIVATIZATION OF STATE ENTERPRISES IN POLAND BETWEEN 1990-2006
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The transformation of the economic system in Poland has already lasted 18 years. One of the main pillars of this process, apart from the stabilization and liberalization of the economy, is the privatization of state-owned enterprises. The aim of this work is to answer the question of how the process of privatization proceeded in Poland between 1990 - 2006 and what its characteristic features were. There are five basic methods of ownership transformation of state-owned enterprises delineated in this work: capital procedure, liquidation in the legal sense procedure, liquidation in the economic sense procedure, contribution of shares to National Investment Funds (NFI), banking settlement procedure (BPU). Called the instruments of the privatization policy, these methods have greatly influenced the dynamics of the process of ownership transformation in the Polish economy. The assumed aims of privatization in Poland exerted a strong influence on the choice of the methods of the privatization of state-owned enterprises. The normative approach states that the primary aim of privatization should be the achievement of greater economy effectiveness at both microeconomic and macroeconomic levels. From the point of view of the State, privatization was supposed to be a significant source of income to the budget, obtained from the sale of entire enterprises or just their shares. One of the aims of privatization was also the broadening of the holder's group through giving people the possibility of preferential obtaining of ownership titles. The practice of privatization in Poland has shown that the aim concerning the participation of the society was realized mainly through giving privileges to the employees of the privatized enterprises. The model of privatization launched in Poland was primarily characterized by the allocation of the privatized capital through market mechanism and the participation of the society in the process of ownership transformation. The analysis presented in this work points out to a few reasons of the negative assessment of the privatization process by the society. In general, according to the society there has been a significant decline in the situation of the employees of the privatized enterprises, particularly in the field of employment security, welfare benefits, and wages.
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