COGNITIVE ENDOPHENOTYPES IN PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN THE MOLECULAR - GENETIC CONTEXT (Endofenotypy kognitywne w chorobach psychicznych w kontekscie badan genetyczno-molekularnych)
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Cognitive dysfunctions in psychiatric diseases, important elements of clinical picture of the illnesses, are present in major part of schizophrenic and bipolar patients and in about 50% their first degree relatives. Currently cognitive dysfunctions are known as a cognitive endophenotypes associated with the vulnerability to the illness. One of the well described cognitive endophenotype in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are working memory dysfunctions. The molecular-genetics studies show an association of working memory disturbances in schizophrenia with the polymorphism of dopaminergic system genes, while in bipolar disorders with the polymorphism of the BDNF gene. Moreover valine allele of the D1 receptor gene is associated with the predisposition to schizophrenia, and valine allele of Val66Met of BDNF gene with predisposition to bipolar disorder. This may indicate different neurobiological mechanism of these illnesses and different genetics basis of the cognitive dysfunctions in these conditions. Polymorphism of these genes probably plays more important role in etiology of cognitive dysfunctions in mental disturbances, than in cognitive abilities in healthy subjects.
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