The article covers the main attributes of cultural policy in Soviet Ukraine after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956. It analyses the official literary concept of the socialist realism, focusing on the internationalist principle in wider political context. The study presents the gradual formation of an alternative discourse in the Soviet culture, represented in Soviet Ukraine by works of the younger generation of so-called “Generation of the sixties”. The two discourses interlinked under the specific conditions of the Khrushchev Thaw gave birth to a curious phenomenon of a hybrid culture of National Communism. The article defines the main phases of the development of the alternative discourse of Soviet culture in Ukraine during the Thaw and the gradual development of the „Generation of the sixties“ from Soviet class identity towards a national one that later took form of anti-Soviet and anti-Imperial opposition.