This article discusses the problem of national identification of people living in Moldavia as well as various identities presented in particular historical discourses. This theme is very closely related to the history of Moldovan state, especially after it was forced to join the USSR in 1944. The multinational character of the state and complicated relations between different nationalities largely influence this issue. The author argues that national divisions coincide with the approaches towards titular nation. After more than 15 years since Moldavia became an independent country, two main ideologies in the country compete over whether people living in Moldavia are Moldavians or Romanians. Consequently, significant parts of this article present the debate between people, who identify themselves as Romanians (mainly intelligentsia), and those who believe they are Moldavians (about 80%). The author shows how both sides of this dispute bring different arguments and interpret the history of the nation-state.