When seeking order in the chaos of contemporary approaches to speech communication and its assumptions, it is possible to begin with the fact that the langue-parole opposition (or the competence-performance opposition in some frameworks) is no longer a methodological universal. It thus follows that one criterion for the differentiation of approaches consists in the differences in establishing the goal of the research and its immediate objective and topic. From this perspective, approaches vary in regard to whether they are oriented toward the process of communication as a whole or whether they give preference to one of its components. A further criterion is the opposition of formal and non-formal models. Under the influence of post-modern ideology and in the framework of increasing interdisciplinarity, there has been shift from rational approaches to speech communication and its assumptions.