DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY IN THE KINGDOM OF POLAND TILL 1914 (Rozwoj przemyslu chemicznego w Krolestwie Polskim do 1914 r.)
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The chemical industry in the Kingdom of Poland developed at the turn of the 19th century. Earlier, in the field of industry in the Kingdom one could observe only two lines of the chemical industry: aliphatic and soap, and gas-producing and coal gas. The beginnings of the first mentioned line appeared at the turn of the 18th century, and the second branch - in the half of the 19th century. The development of chemical industry was stimulated by foreign capital expenditure, mainly by German capital. Tariffs had a significant impact on foreign capital expenditures within chemical industry on the territories of Russian Empire, and also in the Kingdom as the most industrialized part of Empire. Thanks to the direct capital expenditures in the Kingdom foreign investors got an access to the receptive Russian market using the potential and technological thought of their establishments - 'mother' firms. In 1913 a share of foreign capital in chemical industry in the Kingdom reached 20,30 %. By dint of foreign capital expenditures in the years 1900 - 1913 production's value in chemical industry rose from 12 to 40,9 million roubles. The foreign capital however used to invest only in the most industrialized provinces of the Kingdom - Warsaw and Piotrkow. And the greatest concentration of chemical industry could be observed just in the above-mentioned provinces. In the years 1904 - 1913 a number of establishments fluctuated there from 88,09 to 81,18 %, and the employment - from 91,83 to 91,09 %. This tendency could be observed till the outbreak of World War I. The Polish and Jewish capital that invested in chemical industry, did not have such financial resources. The investors' establishments were not large and were technologically under-developed, but the Polish and Jewish capital invested in the local market, particularly in agricultural provinces of the Kingdom.
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