The structure of nanoscience is studied by data from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR). Content analysis of projects is made through building up a terminological dictionary and selection of 'nanoprojects' by keywords containing the 'nano' root. This allows to extract 1857 'nanoprojects' funded by the RFBR over 1993-2006. Institutes that are leading 'nanoproject' performers are identified, distribution of projects by departmental affiliation (the Russian Academy of Sciences, HEEs, others) is made, age structure of nanoprojects performers is analyzed. Publication activity on nanoprojects is analyzed by bibliometric indicators contained in SCI database, including a comparative analysis of Russian and foreign researchers. Comparative data are given about grant support of the nanofield in Russia and USA. A separate analysis is made for research in carbon nanostructures by biobliometric indicators about publications devoted to fullerenes and to nanotubes (both by SCI database) in various countries, about patents related with nanotubes and fullerenes, granted in Russia. Russia is highly integrated in the world science about fullerenes and nonatubes, as more than 26% of journal publications on fullerene and more than 34% on nanotubes (over 1993-2006) were written in co-authorship with foreign colleagues. The highest publication performance on fullerenes is with the Moscow State University and a group of Academy institutes. The types of Russian R&D in the field of fullerenes are listed, which can be referred to as priority ones (by citation level and availability of key patents). Research in the field of fullerenes in Russia was followed by applied developments and high invention activity. Russia is capable to launch industrial application of fullerenes, which is not the case of nanotubes, as Russia hasn't the relevant industrial facilities, although attempts to launch nanotubes manufacturing have been made. The conclusion is that fullerenes lead nanotubes in Russia by the number of research projects (by data of the RFBR), publication activity (ICS data base), patenting (database of the Russian Patenting Organization – Rospatent).