Decision making, as a complex mental process, consists of sequences of rudimentary cognitive operations. Therefore, various alternative strategies of information processing can be applied during decision making. The choice of a given strategy depends on situational factors, as well as on the personal characteristics of a decision maker. These characteristics refer mostly to efficiency of attention and working memory processes. Elementary cognitive operations occur in working memory, so its efficiency must be vital for the process of decision making. In spite of these obviously clear assumptions, attempts to investigate the relationships between elementary cognitive operations and the processes of decision making are relatively scarce. In this chapter, the authors discuss such relationships. Particular stress is put on the problem of strategies of decision making and their dependency on the attention and working memory functioning.