This study attempts to monitor the relationship and interconnection between traditions and modernity in the post-war Soviet Union. To the Bolshevik elite, victory in the Second World War 'confirmed' the validity of the already classic Stalinist industrialisation and economic system established in the 30s. Its re-establishment therefore took place without regard for any weak indicators of partial modernising visions that were partly put into effect later, in the spirit of the traditional model. Especially Khrushchev was evidently aware of the necessity of modernisation; however, specific reforms remained fully within the framework of the traditional system. A significant innovation was undoubtedly the increased attention devoted to social matters, increasing the population's low standard of living, among other things. After his removal, a discussion about economic problems and reforms led to the so-called Kosygin's reforms. At the turn of the 70s, highly conservative Brezhnevism, which blocked any kind of change, asserted itself. Attention was then devoted to the relationship between both phenomena during the Gorbachev era, especially in the case of the law about state enterprises.