Tyrš originally contemplated a scientiﬁc career in the ﬁeld of philosophy but his theoretical interest gradually turned to aesthetics and plastic arts. T e speciﬁc culmination of his activities was his role of a founder of the gymnastic association Sokol in this his theoretical experiencefocused in the form of a distinctive “philosophy of living”. The author of this essay seeks to show a deeper philosophic and aesthetic level which shaped Tyrš’s Sokol idea. – Tyrš activism found a philosophic parallel in Schopenhauer’s voluntarism. Darwin’s conception of “struggle for sur¬vival” helped justify Tyrš’s conception of an armed and culturally active nationalism. Tyrš was fascinated with the mature culture of ancient Greece and in his conception Sokol was to be an embodiment of classic values in modern conditions.