The article is the attempt to look at the problem of the quality of intellectual capital in Poland. It is commonly known that intellectual capital is one of the main assets that will frame the success of the economies in the 21st century. It embraces several components such as human capital, structural capital and social capital. Unfortunately, the distance that separates Poland from more developed European countries with regard to intellectual capital remains great. All the components which make up intellectual capital seem to be equally important, that is why strengthening their potential is one of the necessary prerequisites to speed the process of convergence of the Polish economy. In the case of human capital, it is worth taking into account such factors as education, life experience, attitudes and skills. In the field of structural capital a special attention should not only be paid to research and developments or IT expenditure, but also to effects which structural capital can bring in the form of number of patent applications or number of scientific publication per million inhabitants. Moreover, in order to fully assess the quality of intellectual capital, its third component called social capital which includes the norms of conduct and values underpinning cooperation and exchange of knowledge, must be taken into consideration.