The article deals with religious freedom (freedom of conscience and belief) which is currently recognized as a fundamental and most important human liberty. This freedom is closely linked, on the one hand, to the individual's right to privacy and, on the other, to the religious neutrality of the state. A short time ago religious freedom or freedom of conscience and belief was defined by the use of many different words and phrases. Now it is undeniably considered as a guarantee of lack of interest on the part of the state for views, opinions, attitudes and judgment of its citizens or people in general. As a result, in domestic regulations and particularly in international norms, freedom of religion is meant to be interpreted in a very broad sense including the right of free choice of religion, the right to have and express different opinions including religious, non-religious as well as anti-religious views. Hence, freedom of religion means a guarantee for individual to make free evaluations and choice of religion and any other opinions. Freedom of religion have two diferent and important dimensions. First, the individual dimension, which guarantees every human the freedom of conscience and belief, and the second - the collective dimension, which guarantees every church and other religious organisations a freedom that means equality, autonomy and independence. Therefore the 'neutral' state is the best guarantee for the human liberty and rights. For obvious reasons, a democratic and pluralistic political regime is the starting point of freedom of religion and of the neutral state. Therefore the freedom of religion (freedom of beliefs or freedom of philosophy of life or finally freedom of conscience and belief) is a real background of the growing cultural and religious plurality in the modern society.