The history of expeditions to and discoveries of Arctic and Antarctic regions is shown by means of detailed accounts about the core events, such as the expedition of J.Cook (1772-1775), F.Bellinsgauzen and M.Lazarev (1819-1820), R.Amundsen (1911) and R.Scott (1901-1904); internationalization of research in Arctic and the arrangement of the First International Polar Year in 1882-1883. Organization of polar research in Russia at the beginning of XX century is shown, with emphasis on the role of the S.-Petersburg Academy of Sciences where the standing interdisciplinary Polar Commission was founded apart from the existing Hydrographic Expedition of the Arctic Ocean, organized by the government's Chief Hydrographic Department. The Commission had a broad range of objectives, including investigations of all the polar countries, accurate accounting for everything done, organization of expeditions, planning of systematic works in Arctic, elaboration of legal rules for international cooperation etc.
Halyna A. Budzyka, G.M.Dobrov Center for Science & Technology Potential and Science History Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Tsentr doslidzhen' naukovo-tekhnichnogo potentsialu ta istorii nauky imeni G.M. Dobrova NAN Ukrainy); 60, bulvar Tarasa Shevchenka, 01032, Kyiv-32, Ukraine
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