During the age of enlightenment it seemed in many respects necessary to keep the population healthy. This meant to focus on the public health service in the sparsely populated countryside. Here, the medical market was divided into two spheres: the academical doctors mainly settling in towns far from the peasantry and also in social differences to them, whereas other healers, surgeries, midwives and all the informal, not authorized persons in all respects were by far more familiar to the villagers. Trying to better things the physicians intended to propose structural improvements (Medizinalwesen) as well as to enlighten the countryman how to stay healthy, but when fallen ill, to call for a doctor. It was the combination of these two operating fields to aim at a better public health standard and in consequence to strengthen the position of the academic medicine within the medical market. Only this way a win-win-situation was possible to achieve: primarily for the people, but then for the doctors as well.