The creation of a cohesive system of the protection of historical monuments in Poland was inaugurated by the Minister of Culture and National Heritage, who granted the National Heritage Board in Poland a new range of competence. The heretofore duties of this institution (formerly known as the National Centre for the Study and Documentation of Historical Monuments) were expanded by adding coordination and participation in work on periodic reports about Polish sites and objects on the UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage List, the realisation of training and information programmes conducted for the sake of the protection of historical monuments, and the popularisation of knowledge about the cultural heritage. The organisational structure of the institution also underwent transformations. In order to render its work more legible and to divide the obligations and competences of its staff it was decided to establish new departments and teams of experts. The main tasks of the Department for the Strategy of the Protection of Historical Monuments include devising a conservation doctrine, studying historical monuments and their surrounding, and conducting a National Register of Historical Monuments. The Department encompasses a Workshop for Shaping the Conservation Policy, a Workshop for the Study of Historical Monuments, a Workshop for the Documentation and Registration of Immovable Historical Monuments, a Workshop for the Documentation and Registration of Movable Historical Monuments, and an Archival Material Team. The Department of Archaeology realises tasks associated with the protection of the archaeological heritage (it assumed the duties of the dissolved Centre for the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage). The components of this Department are a Workshop of Archaeological Conservation, a Workshop of Archaeological Salvage Studies and a Workshop of Archaeological Registration. Specialists from the Department of Education and Promotion are engaged in educational, training and information programmes as well as in popularizing knowledge about the cultural heritage and its protection. The Department includes a team for the Promotion of the Cultural Heritage, an Education Team, and a Board Library with the largest in Poland collection of specialist publications and works on the protection and conservation of historical monuments. The Organisational Department ensures suitable organisation of work and administers the Polish part of Muzakowski Park in Leknica. The Financial Department-Team conducts bookkeeping and realises the financial policy of the Board. The statutory tasks of the National Heritage Board of Poland in particular voivodeships are implemented by Regional Centres, whose duties include cooperation with the voivodeship conservators of historical monuments, the popularisation of the idea of the protection of historical monuments, educational campaigns, and the realisation of own projects. The tasks and objectives of the National Heritage Board of Poland, discussed in this article, call for further detailed supplementation. The positive changes in the Polish system of the protection of historical monuments will depend on the involvement and activity of the whole conservation milieu.