The paper aims at presenting the structural changes in Polish industry as a result of the integration process with the European Union. Some of the characteristic features of the Polish industry in the pre-accession period, which distinguish this sector from the industries of the EU member countries, were e.g. a large share of heavy industry in the industrial production, a low level of technological development in many sectors, high employment level in labour-consuming sections and, as a result, low competitiveness. Despite a relatively short period of Polish membership in the EU, some of its positive effects can already be seen in the industrial sector. The main changes include a significant growth of the industrial production sold and labour productivity, as well as export dynamics. As far as the structural changes are concerned, there is a lower contribution of mining industry in the industrial production and a slight growth of the processing industry share.