At the outset management science, launched by three engineers Karol Adamiecki, Frederic Taylor and Henri Fayol, was based on observations and analyses of the work in industry. Concepts and conclusions of the new science were successfully implemented in transportation and administration. Theoretical concepts and models have influenced entrepreneurs and managers both directly (via managerial colleges) and indirectly. Therefore case studies reflect applicability and practical usefulness of the management theory. Management science proved to be especially useful in case of countries willing to accelerate their economic development (impact of taylorism in the Soviet Union in 1920s; influence of Deming, Juran and Drucker in Japan after World War II). Recently, achievements and experiences of innovative governors and city mayors in the US gave foundations for the New Public Management.