Eyewitness identification fairness
Languages of publication
Článek shrnuje vybrané poznatky k problematice férovosti kriminalistické rekognice (identifikace očitým svědkem). Stručně se věnuje historii zkoumání této problematiky. Zaměřuje se na důležité aspekty férovosti, jimiž je přítomnost pachatele v rekognici a roli popisu pachatele při vytváření rekognice. Věnuje se experimentálnímu ověření kroků vytváření rekognice a v závěru také způsobům výpočtu férovosti rekognice.
Criminalistic recognition is a very important source of information in the criminal proceedings, but it can be a source of many mistakes. It involves a recognition of the previously perceived object by the identifying person, with the aim of identifying the object. Identifying a person as one of its forms is very interesting from a psychological point of view, and a deeper understanding of the factors that appear throughout the process contributes to the prevention of erroneous procedures. The article deals with one of these effects, the so-called line-up fairness. A fair line-up exposes the suspect to be identified by the ratio: 1 / number of subjects. Unfair lineup increases the possibility of his / her identification, regardless of his / her guilt. The suspect involved in the line-up need not be the perpetrator. The article summarizes the history of this phenomenon, deals with the research of line-up fairness from the psychological point of view, focuses on the key variables of line-up fairness, introduces the procedure of creating a fair lineup and brings information about calculating the line-up fairness. Among the principles that Anglo-Saxon practice regards as key to the line-up fairness there are: the use of a sufficient number of recruits who are similar in physical appearance to the extent that the suspect’s identity is not obvious to the identifying person. While sufficient is meant in England eight, in the US six people. In the Czech Republic, the minimum required is three foils. Fillers should be at least five and no more than eight. Given the diversity of facial and body features in general, it is problematic to specify clearly the degree of similarity and how to build optimally a fair line-up.
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