Migracje ludności na ziemiach odzyskanych w latach 1945-1948
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Population migrations on the regained territories of Poland in the years 1945–1948
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The national politics of the communist government was of paramount importance in relation to the settlement and management of the Polish western and northern territories. The primary elements of the politics included: the eviction of the German population, the settlement of the Polish population and the incorporation of the native Polish population into the Polish nation. These issues were strongly connected with one another and were resolved simultaneously in the process of unification. The questions of the eviction of the Germans and the new territories on the west were beyond discussion as these issues were equally important for all political parties in Poland. Both the communist as well the democratic underground supported this option. The eviction of the Germans from territories taken over by Poland after the end of World War II constituted one of the major political targets of the new state. The Germans who were forced to migrate from their homes often protested and not infrequently faced numerous forms of the direct use of force. The main problem of the western and northern territories of Poland, abandoned in 60% of the area, consisted in the settlement of Polish people. The settlement on the Regained Territories before the establishment of the Ministry for Regained Territories, despite various attempts to introduce numerous schemes, remained disorganized and uncoordinated. It proceeded impulsively, with relatively little control of the local administration, and poor involvement of the central government. The activity of the newly established Ministry for the Regained Territories allowed for better planning of the settlement of the post-German territories. In consequence of World War II, the western and northern territories of Poland were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants who were replaced by immigrants from various regions of Poland as well as from abroad. Most of these new settlers came of their own will, there were however many cases of forced migration. The attitude of Poles was influenced mainly by political and social circumstances. During the first wave of the after-war settlement this attitude grew out of the experience of the war. There was a lot of hostility fear about the potential return of the Germans. In the first period these attitudes were strengthened by the presence of the German population and their contacts with the Red Army. The official anti-German propaganda exerted a strong impact on the attitudes of the Polish settlers and arose a lot of hostility, frustration and violence.
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