Unhindered and sure access to resources in demanded amounts, of required quality, at demanded dates and at reasonable prices, which is the basic element of security of resources, is considered one of the most important factors that build international competitiveness of the European industry. It is simultaneously an element of the implementation of the Europe 2020 Strategy, aimed at providing economic growth and increased employment in the European Union. The article explains the notion of security of resources by presenting a static and a dynamic attitude, as well as measurement techniques. It also shows, among others, for how much time current recorded resources of the main types of raw materials will last, including energy, metallic and chemical materials. The author also discusses factors that hamper access to new deposits, namely formal and legal limitations, economic and ecological problems, social protests and geological limitations. Moreover, he studies prospects of the Polish mining sector with regard to main minerals, the extent to which the economy depends on imports of minerals and consequences thereof, as well as the concept of sustainable mining, juxtaposed with practice.